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  1. Mild VSD – presents no morbidity.
  2. Severe VSD – if pulmonary hypertension develops:
    • response to therapy and prognosis are unknown, but likely very poor
    • if heart failure develops, the animal will likely succumb within 6 months.


  • chronic excessive fluid flow through the pulmonary circulation may result in pulmonary hypertension and right to left shunt flow.
  • this is likely a rare occurrence.
  • if it does occur, polycythemia (increase in RBC mass of the blood) may develop and can be treated with hydroxyurea, which suppresses bone marrow production of RBCs.