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  1. Signalment:
    • Breeds
      • Samoyed
      • English Bulldog
      • Mastiff
      • Fox terrier
      • Miniature Schnauzer
      • Chihuahua
      • Beagle
      • Keeshond
      • American Cocker Spaniel
      • West Highland White Terrier
    • Inheritance: Polygenic
    • Age: presented as puppies
  2. History:
    • An incidental finding at the time of puppy vaccination is the usual presentation
    • Syncope/fatigue/exercise intolerance may occur
    • Signs of right heart failure in cases of severe pulmonic stenosis
    • Could present as an incidental murmur in an adult
  3. Physical examination:
    • systolic heart murmur with a PMI over the left heart base which may radiate up the neck
    • femoral arterial pulse is normal
    • signs of right heart failure may be present
    • concurrent tricuspid valve insufficiency may be present
    • dysrhythmias with pulse deficits may be present