Lesson Progress
0% Complete
  1. Signalment:
    1. Breeds:
      • English Springer Spaniels
      • English Bulldog
      • Keeshond
    2. Inheritance: Polygenic
    3. Age: Usually presented as puppies
  2. History:
    • An incidental finding at the time of puppy vaccination if small defect
    • large defect – stunted growth, fail to thrive
    • A murmur may be detected as an incidental finding in the adult
  3. Physical examination:
    • A systolic heart murmur with a PMI over the right sternal border
    • Thrill may be present over right hemithorax
    • If shunt flow reverses – signs of right to left shunt flow will be noted and signs of right heart failure
    • Large defects may show congestive heart failure