Bradycardia is present when the ventricular rate is too slow. General guidelines are:
- Dog (< 20 kg) ≤ 70 bpm
- Dog (> 20 kg) ≤ 60 bpm
- Cat ≤ 100 bpm
- Enhanced parasympathetic tone as with:
- Increased respiratory effort as with respiratory disease.
- Gastric irritation.
- Increased CSF pressure.
- Drug therapy
Consequence: profound bradycardia will cause weakness, hypotension, syncope
- Treat the underlying cause of the bradycardia
- Atropine may abolish the bradycardia